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商务部外贸司负责人谈2017年1-5月我国对外贸易情况
MOFCOM Department of Foreign Trade Comments on China’s Foreign Trade Situation in January-May 2017

根据海关统计,2017年1-5月,我国进出口总额10.76万亿元人民币,同比(下同)增长19.8%;其中出口5.88万亿元,增长14.8%;进口4.88万亿元,增长26.5%;顺差9939.7亿元,收窄21.1%,进出口实现较快增长,结构进一步优化,动力转换加快,回稳向好势头进一步巩固。商务部外贸司负责人指出,2017年1-5月我国对外贸易主要呈现以下特点:

从商品结构看,机电产品出口3.37万亿元,增长14.2%,占比57.3%,与去年同期基本持平,其中汽车、船舶、手机和计算机及其部件等分别增长32.1%、27.2%、16.0%和14.6%。纺织服装等7大类传统劳动密集型行业出口也保持较快增长,增幅达到12.8%(出口额1.20万亿元)。

从经营主体看,民营企业出口2.75万亿元,增长18.1%,占比46.7%,较去年同期提高1.3个百分点,继续保持出口第一大经营主体地位。

从贸易方式看,一般贸易进出口6.11万亿元,增长21.0%,占全国外贸总值的56.8%,较去年同期提高0.6个百分点。跨境电商、市场采购贸易等新业态继续保持较快增长。

从国际市场看,我与欧盟、美国、东盟等前十大贸易伙伴进出口增长18.9%。对美国、欧盟、日本等传统市场出口分别增长18.3%、14.6%、12.8%;对俄罗斯、印度、新加坡、印度尼西亚等“一带一路”沿线国家出口快速增长,增幅分别达到29.5%、24.7%、15.8%和16.9%。

1-5月,我国进出口较快增长主要原因:

一是政策效应逐步显现。近年来,党中央、国务院出台了一系列促进外贸发展的政策文件。商务部会同各部门、各地方以空前力度狠抓政策落实,营商环境不断改善,企业减负助力取得实效,市场主体活力得到有效激发,政策效应进一步显现。

二是国际市场缓慢复苏。国际货币基金组织(IMF)4月公布的《世界经济展望》将2017年全球经济增速预测值由1月份的3.4%提高至3.5%,其中发达经济体增速将由2016年的1.7%加快至2.0%,较上次预测值提高0.1个百分点,发展中和新兴经济体增速由2016年的4.1%加快至4.5%。

三是企业结构调整和动力转换加快。一大批企业从供给侧发力,加快结构调整和转型升级,着力培育以技术、品牌、质量、服务、标准为核心的外贸竞争新优势,企业创新能力增强,动力转换加快。

四是大宗商品进口量价齐升拉动我国进口较快增长。我国原油、铁矿砂、天然气、钢材、铜精矿等10类大宗商品(占我同期进口总额的24.3%)进口价格上涨7.7%—90.8%,进口数量增长2.4%—29.6%,拉动进口增长11.7个百分点。

According to the statistics of China Customs, in January-May 2017, China's import and export volume reached 10.76 trillion yuan, with an increase of 19.8% year on year (the same below). Among these, the export was 5.88 trillion yuan, with an increase of 14.8% and the import was 4.88 trillion yuan, with an increase of 26.5%; the trade surplus was 993.97 billion yuan, narrowing 21.1%. The import and export realized a rapid development, the structure was further optimized, the structure optimization was accelerated, and the turnaround momentum was further consolidated. The Head of the MOFCOM Department of Foreign Trade pointed out in January-May 2017 China's foreign trade mainly showed the following features:

From the perspective of commodity structure, the export volume of mechanical and electrical products was 3.37 trillion yuan, with an increase of 14.2%, accounting for 57.3%, remaining the same as in the same period last year. Among these, the growth of automobile, ship, mobile and computer and its component was 32.1%, 27.2%, 16.0% and 14.6% respectively. The export of seven traditional labor-intensive industries such as textile and garment maintained a rapid growth, up 12.8% (the export volume was 1.20 trillion yuan).

From the perspective of business subjects, the export amount of private enterprises reached 2.75 trillion yuan, with an increase of 18.1%, accounting for 46.7%, 1.3 percentage points higher than in the same period last year, and remaining as the first business subject of export enterprises.

From the perspective of trading mode, the general imports and exports amount reached 6.11 trillion yuan, with an increase of 21.0%, accounting for 56.8% of the gross national foreign trade, 0.6% percentage points higher than in the same period last year. New formats such as cross-border e-commerce and market procurement trade continue to maintain a rapid development.

From the perspective of national market, our imports from and exports to the top ten trade partners such as EU, the United State and the ASEAN increased 18.9%, and those from and to traditional markets such as the United States, EU and Japan went up 18.3%, 14.6% and 12.8% respectively. The exports to the countries along the line of the "Belt and Road" such as Russia, India, Singapore and Indonesia have increased rapidly, the growth rate reaching 29.5%, 24.7%, 15.8% and 16.9% respectively.

In January-May, the major reasons for China's rapidly increasing import and export are:

Firstly, policy effect appeared progressively. In recent years, the Central Party Committee and the State Council have introduced a series of policy documents promoting foreign trade development. MOFCOM, together with all departments and local governments, focused on the implementation of policy with unprecedented strength. The business environment was constantly improved, burdens were tangibly eased, assistance for enterprises were visibly provided, vitality of the market subject obtained effective motivation and policy effect further appeared.

Secondly, international market recovered slowly. The World Economic Outlook released by the IMF in April improves the predicted value of global economic growth would rise to 3.5% from 3.4% in January. Among this, the growth of developed economies accelerates to 2.0% from 1.7% in 2016, 0.1 percentage points higher than what was last predicted. The growth of developing and emerging economies accelerate to 4.5% from 4.1% in 2016.

Thirdly, enterprises' structure adjustment and power conversion were accelerated. A large batch of enterprises generated power from the supply side, accelerated structure adjustment and transformation and upgrading, strived to cultivate new foreign trade competitive advantages centering on technology, brand, quality, service and standard. The innovative capacity of enterprises was strengthened and the power conversion was accelerated.

Fourthly, the rising import volume and price of bulk commodity drove China's rapid development of import and export. The import prices of 10 bulk commodities such as crude oil, iron ore, natural gas, steel and copper concentrate (accounting for 24.3% of China's import volume at the same period) increased 7.7% to 90.8%. The import volume increased 2.4%-29.6%, driving 11.7 percentage points of import growth.

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